New Delhi is the capital city of India. As the national capital, New Delhi is the seat of executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India. It also serves as the centre of the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi and is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory.
The foundation of the city was laid on 15 December 1911. It was planned by two leading 20th century British architects namely Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new Capital was christened “New Delhi” in 1927, and subsequently inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by British India’s Viceroy Lord Irwin. On 12 December 2011, New Delhi celebrated 100 years of Capitalship, making it another landmark year in the long history of the historic capital of the region of Delhi. New Delhi is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Humayun’s Tomb and the Qutub complex. There are areas like Old Delhi and Mehrauli in New Delhi which have a number of heritage structures.
New Delhi is known as the microcosm of India and is one of the world’s top global cities. The metropolis of Delhi is the 2nd most populous in India with a total population nearing 17 million residents, the capital city being the 10th most populous city in the world by city proper and has the 7th biggest urban agglomeration in the world with a population of 23 million people. The metropolis has the highest urban spread in the country with a total area of the city being 1482 s.km. The World Cities Study Group at Loughborough University rated New Delhi as an “alpha- world city”. In 2011, Knight Frank’s world city survey ranked it 37th globally. The National Geographic’s Traveler Magazine describes it as “one of the Ultimate Cities of a Lifetime to visit and explore.” In a report jointly prepared by Institute for Competitiveness and Confederation of Indian Industry, the city is listed as the best to live in India. According to Mercer, New Delhi is the most expensive city in India for expatriates in terms of cost of living, figuring 113th in the list of 214 cities. New Delhi is known for its wide, tree-lined boulevards and is home to numerous national institutions, museums and landmarks.
The climate of New Delhi is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with high variation between summer and winter, in terms of both temperatures and rainfall. The temperature varies from 46 °C (115 °F) in summers to around 0 °C (32 °F) in winters. The area’s version of a humid subtropical climate is noticeably different from many other cities with this climate classification in that it features long and very hot summers, relatively dry and cool winters, a monsoonal period, and dust storms. Summers are long, from early April to October, with the monsoon season in between. Winter starts in November and peaks in January. The annual mean temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F); monthly daily mean temperatures range from approximately 14 to 34 °C (57 to 93 °F). Delhi’s lowest temperature ever recorded is −0.7 °C (30.7 °F). The average annual rainfall is 714 millimetres (28.1 in), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August.